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Offers : 29

Integrated optical circuits and dielectrophoresis: Towards bacterial sensing applications

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Start date : 1 February 2021

offer n° IMEPLAHC-PHOTO-10-16-2020

Master thesis
Master Recherche / PFE
(5 to 6 month)
Integrated optical circuits and dielectrophoresis: Towards bacterial sensing applications

IMEP-LaHC is one of the leading laboratories in the field of integrated optics, and more specifically of photonics on glass. Striving for innovation, one of our goals is to fabricate integrated devices dedicated to sensing applications such as bacteria detection. Indeed, monitoring of bacterial concentration is critical in various fields such as agri-food industry or environmental monitoring.
For this aim, IMEP-LaHC develops collaborations with the Institut des Géosciences et de l’Environnement (IGE) and the Laboratoire des Microbiologies Signaux et Microenvironnement (LMSM). For these partners, the design and fabrication of a compact, reusable and portable optical sensor would be a major step for efficient and continuous in-situ measurements. Our objective is to develop an innovative solution that does not require a functionalization layer to trap the bacteria in the sensing area. We thus aim at co-integrating optical waveguides with electrodes designed for dielectrophoresis (DEP) applications1,2.
An alternative voltage is applied on metallic electrodes in order to create a non-uniform electric field. It can trap polarizable particles such as bacteria close to an optical waveguide, leading to a change of the refractive index of its superstrate.

This Master’s thesis is the continuation of a previous Master’s subject that has delt with the DEP electrode’s design and fabrication. This one is focused on the co-integration of the electrodes with a Mach-Zehnder optical interferometer and a microfluidic cavity. The aim is to provide a proof of concept of a first sensor’s design by detecting bacteria-sized latex beads as a model.

The main specifications of the subject are:

  • The realization and characterization of a device co-integrating the DEP electrodes with an optical straight waveguide.
  • The design and fabrication of a sensor’s prototype co-integrating the DEP electrodes with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer
  • A first validation of the prototype via the sensing of bacteria-sized latex beads.

To fulfill these objectives, the student will become familiar with the subject through a bibliographic research on integrated sensors dedicated to bacterial concentration and Mach-Zehnder interferometer. He/she will also be trained for various techniques of design and fabrication.
The training includes in particular:

  •  Clean room processes for the metallic deposition and integrated optics
  •  microfabrication processes for the realization of the microfluidic chamber
  •  integrated optics on glass technology (ion diffusion on glass)
  •  simulation tools dedicated to guided optics propagation
  • optical characterizations of integrated devices

This Master’s subject is a preliminary work for a future PhD subject, dealing with the integration of a full bacteria sensor3. Depending on the student’s motivation and progress, a last task could deal with the integration of the optical function in a more complex circuit or the optimization of the microfluidic chamber (fabrication process, material used…)

Advisors:
Elise GHIBAUDO elise.ghibaudo@grenoble-inp.fr – 04 56 52 95 31
Davide BUCCI davide.bucci@phelma.grenoble-inp.fr 04 56 52 95 39
laboratoire IMEP – LaHC
MINATEC – INPG, 3 Parvis Louis Néel BP 257 38016 Grenoble Cedex 1 – France

1 L. Cui, T. Zhang and H. Morgan, J. Micromech. Microeng. 12 (2002) 7–12
2 J. Suehiro et al, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 32 (1999) 2814
3 S. Tokonami, T. Iida, Analytica Chimica Acta 988 (2017) 1-16

  • Keywords : Engineering sciences, Electronics and microelectronics - Optoelectronics, FMNT, IMEP-LaHc
  • Laboratory : FMNT / IMEP-LaHc
  • CEA code : IMEPLAHC-PHOTO-10-16-2020
  • Contact : elise.ghibaudo@grenoble-inp.fr

Simulation of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides for memory devices

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Start date : 5 October 2020

offer n° IMEPLAHC-CMNE-08-20-2020

                                           PhD position 2020-2023
Simulation of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides for memory devices

at IMEP-LAHC / MINATEC / GRENOBLE UNIVERSITY – FRANCE KEYWORDS

 

 

KEYWORDS :
Density functional theory, quantum charge transport, nanoelectronics, numerical simulation.

PROJET DESCRIPTION:
Since the discovery of graphene in 2004, many other layered materials have been synthetized. Among them, transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted a strong interest for applications in nanoelectronics thanks to their semiconducting nature with a variety of band gaps, and their atomic thickness, which allows an excellent electrostatic control. The possibility of stacking different layers has opened the path to innovative vertical devices, such as tunnel field-effect transistors for low-power electronics and printable electronics. The understanding of the electron transport through vertical 2D systems thus represents an important challenge for the future development of 2D electronics.

The goal of the PhD is to theoretically and numerically investigate these vertical structures by exploring their electronic and transport properties. The focus will particularly be on atomristors, which are sandwiches of semiconducting 2D materials and metallic contacts. These systems have been shown to change their electrical resistance to high or low values when traversed by a large current. Such a phenomenon is due to modifications of the atomic structure, which are not clearly identified at present. It allows the use of these devices as memories or in radiofrequency switches, which is the goal of the ANR SWIT project.

These systems have an intrinsically quantum behavior, in the sense that the wave nature of electron governs the transport properties at the interfaces and in the 2D layers. Their simulation thus requires the use of a general electron transport approach, such as the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism, as well as an ab initio atomistic description of the electronic structure based on the density functional theory.

The student will be asked to:

  • Calculate the electronic structure of sandwiches of transition metal dichalcogenides and metallic contacts by means of density functional theory simulations. The height of the resulting Schottky barriers will be estimated.
  • Calculate the electronic structure and the transport properties of the vertical structures in the presence of vacancies, substitutional impurities, dislocations or grain boundaries. The results will clarify the role of disorder in determining the resistance of the high-resistance state in atomristors.
  • Investigate the energetic stability of islands of the transition metal dichalcogenide with different structural phases or migrated metal atoms, and simulate their impact on the transport properties of the vertical structure. The aim is to understand the physical mechanism of the switching in atomristor and to explore the low-resistance state.

This work will require learning and using numerical codes for ab initio calculations and quantum transport simulations.

There will be regular interactions with the experimental colleagues of CEA-LETI and IEMN in the frame of the SWIT project. The results of the student will be important to identify the ideal combinations of transition metal dichalcogenides and metallic contacts to obtain devices with a very high resistance in the off state, and to clarify the switching mechanism.

CANDIDATE PROFILE :

  •  Training in physics and/or electronics, with a solid knowledge of condensed matter physics
  • Basic knowledge of computer programming for numerical simulation
  •  Previous experience with density functional theory will be a plus

The candidate must hold a master degree (equivalent to a master M2R in France) or an equivalent university degree eligible for the EEATS Doctoral School of Université Grenoble Alpes.

DETAILS :
Co-supervisors: Alessandro CRESTI (IMEP-LaHC), François TRIOZON (CEA-LETI)
Funding: ANR project SWIT (SWItches based on Transition metal dichalcogenides for RF applications)
Thesis starting date: October/November 2020
Thesis duration: 3 years

ABOUT THE RESEARCH INSTITUTES :
IMEP-LaHC  is a “unité mixte de recherche” involving Grenoble INP, Université Grenoble Alpes, Université Savoie Mont Blanc and CNRS.
It is located within the Minatec innovation pole, in Grenoble. The laboratory employs 49 researchers, 15 engineers and technicians, 3 postdoctoral fellows, and 42 PhD students.
It has collaborations with several universities and research centers, large industrial groups (ST-Microelectronics, IBM, Motorola, etc.), and preindustrial microelectronics centers (LETI, LITEN, IMEC, Tyndall).
CEA-LETI  is a research institute for electronics and information technologies employing more than 1000 researchers, engineers and technicians.
It hosts a large technological platform (clean rooms, physico-chemical characterization). It is mainly funded by industrial partnerships.
It relies on a strong scientific expertise: partnerships with CEA/DRF (Fundamental Research Division) and academic institutes (CNRS, Universities) via national and European funding.
The PhD student will work within the team “Composant MicroNanoElectronique” of IMEP-LaHC and in very close collaboration with the team “Simulation et Modélisation” of LETI.

CONTACTS :
Send a CV, a letter of motivation, photocopies of diplomas and academic record with ratings, and two recommendation letters to:
Dr. Alessandro Cresti, CNRS researcher at IMEP-LaHC, email: alessandro.cresti@grenoble-inp.fr
Dr. François Triozon, researcher at CEA-LETI, email: francois.triozon@cea.fr

The position will remain open until it is filled.

  • Keywords : Engineering sciences, Electronics and microelectronics - Optoelectronics, FMNT, IMEP-LaHc
  • Laboratory : FMNT / IMEP-LaHc
  • CEA code : IMEPLAHC-CMNE-08-20-2020
  • Contact : alessandro.cresti@grenoble-inp.fr

(filled) Study and development of piezotronic biosensors based on ZnO

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Start date : 1 September 2020

offer n° IMEPLAHC-05152020-CMNE

PhD thesis subject:

Study and development of piezotronic biosensors based on ZnO

IMEP-LaHC / MINATEC / Grenoble-France
Deadline for application: May 31th 2020

 

Keywords:
Nanotechnologies, Nanowires, Piezoelectricity, Biosensor, Semiconductor Physics and technology.

Description of the project:
Semi-conductor piezoelectric nanowires (NWs) (of GaN or ZnO among others) have improved piezoelectric properties compared to thin films and bulk materials, because of their greater flexibility, their sensitivity to weaker forces, and also, due to an intrinsic improvement in their piezoelectric coefficients which has been identified by recent theoretical and experimental studies [1, 2].
The coupling of piezoelectric polarization and semiconducting properties of the nanostructures allow the design of new “piezotronic” devices with new functionalities and improved performance. They can be used in applications like pressure or strain sensors, biosensors, photodetectors, etc. [3, 4, 5]. In France, the IMEP-LaHC has contributed in this area with the study of several piezotronic devices based in NWs [6, 7].
These studies have been realized in collaboration with different laboratories and research institutes in France and abroad. In this domain, several devices have been explored but very few studies have been reported about their reliability and lifetime.

The objective of this thesis will be the design, study and development of new architectures of biosensors exploiting the piezotronic effect on NWs. The purpose is to develop biosensors with high sensitivity, reliability and lifetime.

The student will have at his disposal all the experimental facilities of the laboratory, as well as access to the PTA technological platform for the preparation of specific test structures (metallization of contacts, connections, etc.).
The NWs will be developed at the IMEP-LaHC or will be accessible through different collaborations.
The surface functionalization and biological manipulations will be realized as well through collaborations (LMGP, INL, Institute Néel, INAC…).

References:
[1] X. Xu, A. Potié, R. Songmuang, J.W. Lee, T. Baron, B. Salem and L. Montès, Nanotechnology 22 (2011)
[2] H. D. Espinosa, R. A. Bernal, M. Minary‐Jolandan, Adv. Mater. 24 (2012)
[3] Y. Zhang, Y. Liu and Z. L. Wang, Advanced Materials 23 (2011)
[4] X. Wang, Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull, 92 (2013).
[5] K. Jenkins, V. Nguyen, R. Zhu and R. Yang, Sensors 15 (2015)
[6] M. Parmar, E. A. A. L. Perez, G. Ardila, E. Saoutieff, E. Pauliac-Vaujour and M. Mouis, Nano Energy 56 (2019)
[7] Y.S. Zhou, R. Hinchet, Y. Yang, G. Ardila, R. Songmuang, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, W. Han, K. Pradel, L. Montes, M. Mouis and Z.L. Wang, Adv. Mater. 25 (2013)

More information:
Knowledge and skills required:
It is desirable that the candidate has knowledge in one or more of these areas: semiconductor physics, piezoelectricity, clean room techniques and associated characterizations (SEM, etc.), surface functionalization, biosensors.
The grades and the rank as undergraduate and especially for the Master degree are a very important selection criterion for the doctoral school.

Location:
IMEP-LaHC / Minatec / Grenoble, France

Doctoral school:
EEATS (Electronics, Electrical engineering, Automatism, Signal processing), specialty NENT (Nano Electronics Nano Technologies).

About the laboratory:
IMEP-LAHC / MINATEC / Grenoble
IMEP-LAHC is located in the Innovation Center Minatec in Grenoble. The main research areas concern Microelectronic devices (especially CMOS, SOI), Nanotechnologies, Photonic and RF devices. It works in close partnership with several industrial groups (such as ST-Microelectronics, IBM, or Global Foundries), preindustrial institutes (such as LETI, LITEN, IMEC, or Tyndall), as well as SMEs (e.g. CEDRAT).
The PhD thesis will be carried out within the group working on MicroNanoElectronic Devices /Nanostructures & Nanosystems. The student will have access to several technological (clean room) and characterization platforms.

Contacts:
Gustavo ARDILA  : ardilarg@minatec.grenoble-inp.fr

  • Keywords : Engineering sciences, Electronics and microelectronics - Optoelectronics, FMNT, IMEP-LaHc
  • Laboratory : FMNT / IMEP-LaHc
  • CEA code : IMEPLAHC-05152020-CMNE
  • Contact : ardilarg@minatec.grenoble-inp.fr
  • This Thesis position has been filled. Thank you for your interest

Development of a 3D modeling tool to modelize integrated optical structure with complex profile

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Start date : 1 September 2020

offer n° IMEPLaHC-03112020-PHOTO

PHD subject, duration 36 months

Development of a 3D modeling tool to modelize integrated optical structure with complex profile

Contact:
Alain MORAND alain.morand@univ-grenoble-alpes.fr

Photonic devices can be developed in different substrates (Silicon, Nitride, Glass …). To design integrated optic functions, numerical modelling tools are necessary as FDTD, FMM, BPM …
These tools are already distributed commercially by different companies. All of these methods suffer from the staircase approximation. The space domain is in fact discretized in small sections (square most of the time) which don’t follow exactly the boundary of a waveguide. An artificial roughness appears at the interface inducing reflection or scattering. The objective of this PHD is to develop a 3D tool to minimize this effect in order to reach the ideal structure. Complex profile or real roughness waveguide could after be simulated with a good accuracy using this kind of tool.

For few years ago, Fourier Modal Method has been developed in the world and in our lab [1 and 2]. And recently, we added a Fast Fourier Factorization module to eliminate the staircase problem [3, 4]. This module has been implemented firstly in a Differential Method tool used to modelize the scattering of grating structure from a plane wave excitation. We have implemented this module in the FMM to simulate 2D optical waveguide. This efficiency has been recently proved [5].

Now, we would like to add this combination in a 3D version. This tool could then be an excellent solution for all company developing integrated optic structure. A first goal, it is to be able to add a real roughness of the waveguide and to estimate its impact on the reflection, attenuation losses or shift wavelength resonance for resonator cavity. A second goal is to have the possibility to design plasmonic structure with different shape as triangular, cylinder which can be complicated to simulate with classical methods. Plasmonic excitation of the metal plane with a specifically roughness could also be analyzed. The domain of study is not limited when the tool is developed and can be very large.

The requested skills or knowledge of the student:

  • Guided wave theory, electromagnetism (In optic or in radiofrequency domain)
  •  Computer science
  • Python code and eventually C code[1] J. P. Hugonin and P. Lalanne, “Perfectly matched layers as nonlinear coordinate transforms: a generalized formulalization”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 22, 1844-1849 (2005)
    [2] D. Bucci, B. Martin and A. Morand, “Application of the three-dimensional aperiodic Fourier modal method using arc elements in curvilinear coordinates”, JOSA A, Vol. 29 (3), pp. 367-373, 2012.
    [3] E. Popov and M. Nevière, “Grating theory: new equations in Fourier space leading to fast converging results fo TM polarization”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 17, 1773-1784 (2000)
    [4] H. Mohamad, S. Essaidi, S. Blaize, D. Macias, P. Benech and A. Morand, “Fast Fourier Factorization for differential method and RCWA: a powerful tool for the modeling of non-lamellar metallic diffraction gratings”, Optical and Quantum Electronics, 52:127, (2020)
    [5] H. Mohamad, S. Blaize, P. Benech and A. Morand, « An aperiodic differential method associated to the FFF: a numerical tool for integrated optic waveguide modelization », OWTNM in Berlin, (2020)

    PHD funding: it will depend on the level of the student in order to be funded by French ministry
  • Keywords : Engineering science, Engineering sciences, Electronics and microelectronics - Optoelectronics, FMNT, IMEP-LaHc
  • Laboratory : FMNT / IMEP-LaHc
  • CEA code : IMEPLaHC-03112020-PHOTO
  • Contact : alain.morand@univ-grenoble-alpes.fr

(filled) Design of solutions for identification (THID) and authentication by non-contact approaches in the THz domain.

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Start date : 1 October 2020

offer n° IMEPLaHC-02042020-PHOTO

                                                         

PhD subject
Subject tittle:
Design of solutions for identification (THID) and authentication by non-contact approaches in the THz domain.

 

Laboratories:
IMEP-LAHC – Université Savoie Mont-Blanc                                         GIPSA Lab. – Université Grenoble Alpes
Bâtiment Chablais – Campus Scientifique                                                     11 Rue des Mathématiques
73376 Le Bourget du Lac – France                                                                   38400 Saint-Martin-d’Hères

Contact:
Frédéric Garet | frédéric.garet@univ-savoie.fr                                      Cornel Ioana | cornel.ioana@gipsa-lab.grenoble-inp.fr

IMEP-LAHC Laboratory :
The IMEP-LAHC Laboratory (http://imep-lahc.grenoble-inp.fr/), situated at Le Bourget du Lac (Savoy-FRANCE), conducts research in the fields of micro and nano-electronic components, radiofrequency and millimeter, frequencies and photonics and THz optoelectronics. The team involved in this project belongs to the department PHOTO (PHOtonics Terahertz and Optoelectronics) and belongs to the team that played a pioneering role in the development of THz spectroscopy in France from the mid-90s. The laboratory has published major contributions in the fields of precise extraction of material parameters and determination of the THz response (in the 100 GHz – 5 THz range) of devices integrating for example metallic or dielectric photonic structures at 1, 2 or 3 dimensions. In 2011, they proposed the first concept of a THz tag to be used for identification in the THz domain (THID) [1].

GIPSA Lab Laboratory :
The GIPSA Lab (http://www.gipsa-lab.fr/), conducts theoretical and applied research on the signals and systems produced and exchanged by humans or their natural and technological environments. It is confronted with measurements, data and observations from physical, biological, cognitive or artefactual systems in order to provide viable, efficient decision-making, action and communication devices compatible with physical and human reality. These developments are based on theories in information processing and in control / command for the development of models and algorithms, validated by hardware and software implementations.
GIPSA-lab maintains a constant link with applications in very varied fields: health, environment, energy, geophysics, embedded systems, mechatronics, micro and nanosystems, industrial processes and systems, telecommunications, networks, transport, operational safety and security, human-machine interaction, linguistic engineering, etc.

The candidate’s profile :
The candidate, can come from a Master in Physics or Electronics with skills in electromagnetism or signal and information processing, analysis of transient phenomena and inference of physics in data analysis approaches.
Machine learning skills can be also interesting. He may also have skills in instrumentation and / or optics or optoelectronics.

PhD subject :
The identification and authentication of products today represent colossal challenges both in terms of sums and jobs. Indeed, many economic sectors are facing new threats related to the authenticity and integrity of documents or goods. Counterfeiting is thus a scourge worldwide and leads to a very significant shortfall for
many manufacturers.
The subject of this thesis is involved of a project bringing together 2 research laboratories: IMEP-LAHC and GIPSA Lab, as well as 2 companies: TIHIVE  and ARJO SOLUTION which respectively develops THz imaging system and optical solutions to fight counterfeiting. The objective of this project is to design and implement solutions for the identification and/or authentication of manufactured products. The solutions are envisaged in terahertz (THz) frequency range:
1) through the use of chipless tags which can either be directly integrated or more simply attached to products,
2) via the use of the intrinsic properties of products.

The selected candidate will aim to study, propose and develop various identification and/or authentication solutions that can be used in the THz frequencies domain, such as:
– Tags based on periodic and resonant structures (diffractive structures in particular) based on low cost polymers and which exhibit characteristic (specific and unique) signatures in the THz field [2,3].
– By directly using the “intrinsic signature” of the product, obtained by THz imaging for example [4].

More specifically, the work will consist of different steps:
– To design, manufacture and characterize (signature measurement) the THz tags. This work will be carried out in particular at the IMEP-LAHC
– To develop signature processing methods to assess the richness of the information contained in the measured signatures of the tags. These methods will be based on solutions already demonstrated at the GIPSA Lab [5,6].
– To develop a complete authentication solution integrating tag(s), an imaging system from TIHIVE and a signature processing tool. The whole solution should take into account the real application constraints given by ARJO SOLUTIONS.
This work is therefore based on several complementary application research areas:
– An experimental part: implementation of methods for measuring the THz signatures of the tags: THz spectroscopy in the THz domain (THz-TDS) and THz imaging.
– A theoretical part: modeling of the diffractive structures behavior that will be at the origin of the richness of the THz signature of the tag.
– Finally, the definition and implementation of data processing algorithms constitute a part at the border between physics and signal processing. It aims to build algorithms for the identification and classification of tags from innovative descriptors.

Software’s: MATLAB, C/C++, Python
Key words: Time Domain THz Spectroscopy (THz-TDS), THz Tag, Identification and authentication technics, Spectral Analysis, Transient signals analysis, classification, machine learning.
Beginning: September/October 2020 – 3 years’ contract.
Salary: 21240 €/year (before taxes), 16070 €/year (after taxes).

References :
[1] M. Bernier, F. Garet, E. Perret, L. Duvillaret, S. Tedjini,” THz encoding approach for secured chipless radio frequency identification”, Applied Optics, Vol. 50, Issue 23, pp. 4648-4655 (2011)
[2] S. Salhi, F. Bonnefoy, S. Girard, M. Bernier, E. Perret, N. Barbot, R. Siragusa, F. Garet ” Enhanced THz tags authentication using multivariate statistical analysis “, IRMMW2019 44th International Conference on Infrared and Millimeterwave – Paris – France (1st -06st September 2019).
[3] M. Hamdi, F. Garet, L. Duvillaret, Ph. Martinez, G. Eymin Petot Tourtollet, ” Identification Tag in the THz Frequency domain using Low Cost and Tunable Refractive Index Materials”, Ann. Des Télécom., 68, 7-8, pp. 415-424 (August 2013) – DOI 10.1007/s12243-013-0374-7
[4] F. Bonnefoy, C. Ioana, M. Bernier, E. Perret, N. Barbot, R. Siragusa, F. Garet ” Identification of random internal structuring THz tags using images correlation and SIWPD analysis “, IRMMW2019 44th International Conference on Infrared and Millimeterwave – Paris – France (1st -06st September 2019).
[5] Angela Digulescu, Irina Murgan, Cornel Ioana, Ion Candel, Alexandru Serbanescu. Applications of Transient Signal Analysis Using the Concept of Recurrence Plot Analysis. Recurrence Plots and Their Quantifications: Expanding Horizons, 180, pp.19-38, 2016, 978-3-319-29921-1. 〈10.1007/978-3-319-29922-8_2〉. 〈hal-01447912〉
[6] Angela Digulescu, Cornel Ioana, Alexandru Serbanescu, Phase Diagram-Based Sensing with Adaptive Waveform Design and Recurrent States Quantification for the Instantaneous Frequency Law Tracking. MDPI Sensors 2019, 19, 2434; doi:10.3390/s19112434

  • Keywords : Engineering science, Electronics and microelectronics - Optoelectronics, FMNT, IMEP-LaHc
  • Laboratory : FMNT / IMEP-LaHc
  • CEA code : IMEPLaHC-02042020-PHOTO
  • Contact : frederic.garet@univ-savoie.fr
  • This Thesis position has been filled. Thank you for your interest
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