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Offers : 76

Silicon Carbide microelectrode array for neural interfacing

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Start date : 01/03/2024

offer n° IMEPLAHC-CMNE-12-12-2023


Silicon Carbide microelectrode array for neural interfacing


Electric brain computer interfaces are based on electrode that collect or stimulate the neural activity.
For two decades many types of intracortcial microelectrode arrays have been developed  nevertheless long lasting neural implants are still missing to allow a proper of this technology toward clinical application. In this context, the SiCNeural project carried out by a French consortium is considering silicon carbide technology to overcome this barrier. Indeed, SiC offers multiple advantage for neural interface such including biocompatibility and high chemical stability. In this project, 60 microelectrode array for in vitro studies are developed to assess the performances of the SiC  components for neural recording and stimulation.

The role of the candidate will be to evaluate the electrochemical properties of the electrode array by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. The measurement will be performed both in physiological-like medium and in the presence of redox couple.
The candidate will have to implement a dedicated python code to automatize the analysis over the 60 electrode. Depending on the results, the candidate will be able to participate to the recording and stimulation of neural explants.

The candidate will participate to the SiCNeural project meeting to present and discuss her/his results.
This project is financially supported by ANR (French National Research Agency).

Good level in semi-conductor physics, good basics in impedance spectroscopy, standard basis in python coding. Some basis electrochemistry would be appreciated.

Starting date:
March 1st 2024

5- 6 months

Grenoble Institute for Neurosciences (GIN) and IMEP-LAHC, Grenoble

GIN : Clément Hébert
IMEP-LaHC : Edwige Bano

Web sites:



  • Keywords : Engineering sciences, Electronics and microelectronics - Optoelectronics, FMNT, IMEP-LaHc
  • Laboratory : FMNT / IMEP-LaHc
  • CEA code : IMEPLAHC-CMNE-12-12-2023
  • Contact :

(filled) Characterization of dielectric/silicon interfaces using second harmonic generation

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Start date : 01/02/2024

offer n° IMEPLAHC-CMNE-12-01-2024


                                                   Characterization of dielectric/silicon interfaces
                                                            using second harmonic generation     

                                                                                                Starting date: February 2024
                                                                                                    Duration: 5-6 months

The microelectronics and optoelectronics industry relies on complex dielectric/silicon stacked  structures. Such structures, which are needed in cameras, displays, MOS transistors, …, must have very well-defined material properties but also electrical properties in order for the device to work properly.
One challenge associated with the development of those stacks is to be able to characterize their  electrical properties at the chip level and in a non-destructive fashion.

A novel method to achieve non-destructive electrical characterization of interfaces using second harmonic generation (SHG) is currently under active development at IMEP-LaHC, within a collaboration with STMicroelectronics.  This technique has passed the demonstration stage, but in order to be used as an in-line metrology tool in the industry, it needs to prove its ability
to distinguish and quantify two different electrical properties of the interfaces: the trap density and the fixed charges. In order to provide this functionality, a  calibration procedure of the raw results from SHG measurement .must be developed and it is the aim of the internship. The calibration procedure will be obtained by characterizing simple
stacks using both SHG and other established characterization methods such as capacitance – voltage (C-V) measurements.

During the internship, the work will include:

  • Understanding theoretical aspects: second harmonic generation, electric field distribution in semiconductor structures, charges and defaults at the
    interface between dielectric and semiconductor materials.
  •  Using SHG characterization tool available at IMEP-LaHC to test simple stack structures under different configurations (influence of the laser power, influence of the substrate bias, …)
  •  Develop a model to fit the experimental curves.
  • Compare the SHG measurement with C-V measurements in order to provide a method to separate traps and fixed charges densities from SHG measurements.

The intern will work in close collaboration with permanent researchers and a post-doctorate fellow involved in this project from the laboratory.
She/he will participate to the meetings with STMicroelectronics to discuss project advancements. We are looking for motivated candidates, with strong knowledge in non-linear optics and/or semiconductor physics and who are willing to actively participate to a collaborative project. During this multidisciplinary internship, the student will develop both experimental and theoretical skills that can be put to profit for his/her future career in both academic and industrial worlds.

Applicants must send CV and motivations to the contact indicated below. Interviews will be conducted to explain the project and assess whether both side will benefit from the collaboration.


  • Keywords : Engineering science, Engineering sciences, Electronics and microelectronics - Optoelectronics, Electronics and microelectronics - Optoelectronics, FMNT, IMEP-LaHc
  • Laboratory : FMNT / IMEP-LaHc
  • CEA code : IMEPLAHC-CMNE-12-01-2024
  • Contact :
  • This Internship position has been filled. Thank you for your interest

(filled) Photonic physical unclonable functions for secure neuromorphic photonic accelerators.

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Start date : 01/02/2024

offer n° IMEPLAHC-PHOTO-11-10-2023


The rising needs of processing information at the edge for low latency, high speeds, and energy efficiency purposes leveraging edge-computing as well as IoT devices (75 billion expected by 2025) for data collection and processing demands for more robust and reliable security layers to guarantee hardware integrity and information security.  Security layers are a fundamental part of our hardware and digital infrastructure fulfilling several key functions e.g.,  assuring that a hardware sub-system is not counterfeit, that a client has authentication rights onto a server or that  generated/processed data come from a non-corrupted accelerator. Counterfeiting poses a serious threat to the  security of large-scale systems relying on the integration of several sub-systems e.g., counterfeit chips have been  found in ballistic missiles and fighter jets. Besides, the massive exchange of sensitive data in the context of edge
computing for applications such as autonomous driving, requires that pitfalls shall not be exploited by an attacker to
compromise the security of the platform.

The focus of this work will be to develop novel security layers that do not rely on the physical storage of a digital secret key in memory, potentially accessible exploiting SW or HW vulnerabilities. Physical unclonable functions (PUFs) represent a recent class of security layers that can be used for applications in cryptography e.g., end-to-end encryption, blockchain, secure data storage etc. Fabrication tolerances in CMOS platforms guarantee the intrinsic HW
unclonable character of such solutions and contribute to the complexity of their behavior for well-designed  architectures.

Although electronic PUFs are currently predominant, they have been shown to be vulnerable to machine learning  attacks. Conversely, photonic PUFs have demonstrated an increased strength against machine learning attacks due to  their richer responses and larger number of physical quantities for key generation e.g., phase, amplitude, polarization  as well as superior stability and manifold implementations of optical non-linearities.

In the framework of the Horizon Europe research project NEUROPULS (NEUROmorphic energy-efficient secure  accelerators based on Phase change materials aUgmented siLicon photonicS), the PHOTO group at IMEP-LAHC aims to develop novel silicon photonic PUFs for hardware integrity and information security. This work will allow IMEC-LAHCand the other consortium partners involved in security tasks to explore various security protocols at a prototype level (photonic chips will be fabricated by CEA-LETI in a worldwide unique silicon photonics platform with III-V and phasechange materials monolithically integrated) for the next-generation of hardware accelerators based on photonic  neuromorphic architectures interfaced with RISC-V core processors to target edge-computing applications.

In this context we are currently looking for a (m/f) Master student for a 6 months contract.

This internship aims to explore novel implementations of photonic PUFs based on CMOS-compatible Silicon Photonics approaches for applications in hardware integrity (identification) and information security (secure authentication, data signature, encryption…).
The work will involve (i) exploring various photonic architectures by means of system-level simulations considering the  role of fabrication tolerances on the device modelling, (ii) assessing experimentally the performance of the prototypes  (fabrication carried out by CEA-LETI), (iii) carrying out an experimental analysis in terms of robustness and reliability by  exploiting techniques well-known in the PUF and reliability communities, and (iv) proposing novel device/system  designs and strategies to build more robust and reliable PUFs. The work will involve behavioral and system-level modeling of photonic devices and architectures, robustness and reliability analysis of the designed architectures, and the proposal of novel design/system-level solutions.

You have or are about to obtain an MSc in Electronic or Physical Engineering with strong experience in at least one of  the following areas: analog / digital / photonic integrated circuit design, multi-disciplinary or system-level modelling.
Previous experience in design and characterization of photonic devices/systems is a plus. Excellent written and verbal  communication skills in English. Fluency in French is also a plus, but not mandatory.

The Institut de Microélectronique Electromagnétisme Photonique & LAboratoire d’Hyperfréquences & de Caractérisation, IMEP-LaHC, is a « unité mixte de recherche » (CNRS / Grenoble INP / UGA / Université Savoie Mont Blanc) of 110 people strongly committed in research activities related to micro- and nano-electronics, microphotonics, micro- and nano-systems, microwaves and microwave-photonics. The PHOtonics Terahertz and Optoelectronics (PHOTO) group is a leader in the broad field of photonics and high-speed frequencies, with research projects and collaborations at both national, European, and international level.

Fabio Pavanello – email:

1) F Pavanello et al., “Recent advances in photonic physical unclonable functions“, 2021 IEEE European Test Symposium, 2021:
2) Bryan T Bosworth et al., “Unclonable photonic keys hardened against machine learning attacks”, APL Photonics 5, 010803 (2020):
3) F. Pavanello et al., “NEUROPULS: NEUROmorphic energy-efficient secure accelerators based on Phase change materials aUgmented siLicon photonicS”, 2023 IEEE European Test Symposium, 2023:
4) Jean-Emmanuel Broquin, “Ion-exchanged integrated devices”, Integrated Optics Devices V, 4277, 105-117, SPIE, 2001

  • Keywords : Electronics and microelectronics - Optoelectronics, Electronics and microelectronics - Optoelectronics, FMNT, IMEP-LaHc
  • Laboratory : FMNT / IMEP-LaHc
  • CEA code : IMEPLAHC-PHOTO-11-10-2023
  • Contact :
  • This Internship position has been filled. Thank you for your interest

Development of methods for characterization and modeling of complex media in the THz domain

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Start date : 01/02/2024

offer n° IMEPLAHC-PHOTO-10-26-2023

                    MASTER  2 iNTERNSHIP OPENING in 2024
( followed by PhD position)                 

                      Development of methods for characterization and modeling of  complex media in the THz domain                                                      

1- Context and scientific issues
The terahertz (THz) domain is very promising for the detection of substances and materials [1], for security purposes [2], for non-destructive testing [3] but also for very high speed telecommunications (5G and 6G). Thus, in these applications, as for example and more precisely for the construction of very high speed telecommunication systems involving frequencies in the millimeter range and above, it is necessary to have a perfect knowledge of the media in which the waves propagate and with which they are brought to interact. Many materials have already been characterized and their characteristics (refractive index, absorption or otherwise considered dielectric permittivity) are now known on the spectral band of interest which typically ranges between 100 GHz and several THz. For example, common dielectric materials (paper, fabrics, plastics…) are transparent to these waves [4]. However, the materials constituting the transmission channel are very often far from ideal, they can contain a variable humidity level and they are mostly heterogeneous in composition and/or structure:
mixtures of different materials, possibly structured (multilayered, porous, more or less rough), etc. It is therefore necessary to take this complex structure into account in the methods used to characterize them as well as in the model to predict their behavior. In fine, these studies will lead to the modeling of the entire transmission channel, in order to optimize its performance, limits…

The objectives of the project are therefore:

  • to develop characterization methods specifically adapted to the complex materials of interest,
  • to characterize these materials under different temperature and humidity conditions and over a wide spectral range from sub-THz to several THz,
  • to propose theoretical models of these heterogeneous materials (scattering models [5], effective medium models [6], diffraction models [7]…),
    In addition, always with the aim of developing new methods of characterization, it will be necessary to implement an experiment of type optical pump – THz probe to study the dynamic and/or nonlinear properties [11] of certain materials which can be used to manufacture devices of emission and detection of THz wave, or of shaping of THz beams.

The IMEP-LAHC laboratory is internationally recognized for its activities in the field of THz characterization of materials and devices developed since the 1990s [8-10]. The project will rely on the THz characterization facilities of the PLATERA platform of the IMEP-LAHC laboratory ) and on its competences in terms of development of characterization methods for materials and devices. More precisely, the PLATERA platform has the following systems:
2 THz-TDS spectrometers (Time Domain Spectroscopy) and imaging systems, 1 CW (Continuous Waves) spectrometer, 1 multispectral “video rate” imaging system based on an electronic multiplication chain (82 GHz- 1. 1 THz) associated with a THz camera, a THz optical pump-probe experiment using an amplified femtosecond laser and an OPA (Optical Parametric Amplifier) allowing to tune the wavelength of the optical pump beam between 280 nm and 2μm [11].

2- Goals and methods
The objective of the internship is to develop the experimental setup that will be subsequently used forthe PhD studies.
The setup is based on the TeraPulse Lx system by Teraview. Two fibered THz antennas will be mounted so that goniometric and polarimetric measurements can be performed. Once the setup is built, it will be characterized and validated by performing studies on suitable samples.

3- References
[1] R. Miles, X.-C. Zhang, H. Eisele, A. Krotkus, « Terahertz Frequency Detection and Identification of Materials and Objects », NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics, Springer Nature (2021)
[2] A.U. Sokolnikov, « THz Identification for Defense and Security Purposes », World Scientific (2013
[3] D. Nüßler, J. Jonuscheit, « Terahertz based non-destructive testing (NDT) – Making the invisible visible », Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag April 7 (2020) – DOI 10.1515/teme-2019-0100
[4] E. Hérault, F. Garet, J.-L. Coutaz, “On the possibility of identifying substances by remote active THz spectroscopy”, IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, 6, 1, 12-19 (january 2016)
[5] F. Garet, M. Hofman, J. Meilhan, F. Simoens, J.-L. Coutaz, “Evidence of Mie scattering at terahertz frequencies in powder materials”, App. Phys. Lett., 105 (3), 031106 (2014) – doi: 10.1063/1.4890732.
[6] M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, ‘Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: a quasi-static effective medium theory’, J. Phys. Appl. Phys., vol. 42, no. 6, 2009
[7] Emilie Hérault, Maxence Hofman, F. Garet and Jean-Louis Coutaz, “Observation of terahertz beam diffraction by fabrics”, Opt. Lett., 38, 15, (sept. 2013) – 10.1063/1.4821627.
[8] L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, J.L. Coutaz, “A Reliable method for extraction of Material Parameters in THz TimeDomain Spectroscopy”, IEEE JSTQE, 2,pp.739-746 (1996) – citations 1000.
[9] M. Bernier, F. Garet, J.-L. Coutaz, H. Minamide, A. Sato, “Accurate Characterization of Resonant Samples in the Terahertz Regime Through a Technique Combining Time-Domain Spectroscopy and Kramers–Kronig Analysis”, IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, Volume: 6, Issue: 3, May 2016
[10] Coutaz J. –L. Garet F., and V. P. Wallace, « Principles of Terahertz Time-domain Spectroscopy ». Ed. Pan Stanford Publishing, (décembre 2018) – ISBN 9789814774567
[11] D. Zhai, E. Hérault, F. Garet, J.-L. Coutaz, Ci-Ling Pan “THz generation in GaSe crystals pumped with laser photon energy below and around the bandgap“, Appl. Phys. Lett. 122, 011103 (2023) – 10.1063/5.0128292

3- Candidates requirements
– Education level: Master 2 student in optical, electrical or material engineering or physics.
– Expertise: Light-matter interaction, Numerical modeling (HFSS), Instrumentation are appreciated.
– Language: English, French (not required).

4- Other information
Gratification: approx. 600 € per month
Location: IMEP-LAHC Laboratory, University Savoie Mont-Blanc, Rue Lac de la Thuiles, 73370 Le Bourget du Lac (
Contact: Frederic GARET –

  • Keywords : Engineering sciences, Electronics and microelectronics - Optoelectronics, FMNT, IMEP-LaHc
  • Laboratory : FMNT / IMEP-LaHc
  • CEA code : IMEPLAHC-PHOTO-10-26-2023
  • Contact :

Impedancemetric measurements for water pollution sensors – models to determine the frequency characteristics of pollutants

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Start date : 01/02/2024

offer n° IMEPLAHC-DHREAMS-26-10-2023

                                                INTERNSHIP PFE or de MASTER  -2024                                                                  

                            Impedancemetric measurements for water pollution sensors –
models to determine the frequency characteristics of pollutants


HF characterization, biomedical devices, Biosensor, impedance spectroscopy, environmental pollution

Laboratory :
Institut de Microélectronique, Electromagnétisme et Photonique Laboratoire d’Hyperfréquences et Caractérisation
Minatec – Grenoble, 3, parvis Louis Néel, BP 257 38 016 GRENOBLE CEDEX 1
Laboratoire de Génie Electrique de Grenoble
Bâtiment GreEn-ER, 21 avenue des martyrs, CS 90624  38031 GRENOBLE CEDEX 1

Academic supervisors:

XAVIER Pascal,,
GIMENO Leticia,,
RICO Antoine,,

Candidate profile:
Bac+5 or Master in electronics, if possible with a focus in biomedical or biophysical engineering.

  1. Scientific context
Rapid pollutant detection in water can be useful in anticipating environmental disasters. Given our present climate emergency, monitoring water sources is a crucial issue.

Biosensors that merge cells and impedance readings offer a refined solution for broad-spectrum chemical incident detection. In comparison to enzyme- or DNA-based sensors, they bring significant advantages such as heightened stability, lower purification needs, and reduced preparation expenses.

In pursuit of these goals, the IMEP-LaHC and G2Elab laboratories in Grenoble have embarked on a collaboration with other French laboratories, experts in environmental science, biochemistry and biosensors, to create a water pollution biosensor that integrates several measurement methods. Within this initiative, both Grenoble labs are tasked with the creation of an impedance spectroscopy-driven sensor prototype. The biosensor’s design will employ bacteria as pollution markers, aiming to identify impedance shifts in bacterial solutions when in contact with pollutants. An intermediary stage involves determining the frequency-based dielectric behavior of the contaminants.

2. Internship objectives
The goal of the internship revolves around characterizing the electromagnetic response (impedance, conductivity, permittivity, dispersion range) of pollutants diluted in water. This characterization phase is pivotal to interpret and differentiate the sensor’s reactions when confronted with tainted aqueous solutions including bacteria.

The intern will be co-guided by a Ph.D. student who works on this topic. The internship will be supported by the trio of permanent researchers engaged in this biosensor, contributing their respective scientific field. Throughout the internship, the intern will receive training from his/her mentors and the technical staff of IMEP-LaHC on the theoretical principles of impedance spectroscopy and the required design, fabrication and electrical characterization techniques for the project’s fruition.

        3. Internship progress
The internship will begin with a deep literature review around Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) allowing the choice of a pollutant suited to begin the study. This selected contaminant will pose a minimal chemical risk, aligning with the lab’s prevailing safety standards. The contaminant electromagnetic behavior should be straightforward enough for easy interpretation and decoupling in a dielectric spectrometry measurement.

Once this first pollutant is identified, the aim is to carry out dielectric spectrometry measurements using an initial sensor prototype already fashioned in the lab. The calibration will be supported by results formerly observed by the doctoral student with this identical prototype on saline solutions.

Once the calibration is completed, the focus will shift towards refining the prototype’s electrode model and design to best match the pollutant’s features. Depending on the intern’s inclinations, they can then either focus on the optimized electrode design for a specific pollutant or on the comparison of frequency responses (dispersion range, conductivity, permittivity) of additional contaminants using the already established prototype. Depending on the internship advancement, a final task may involve Python programming for impedance-focused signal processing.

In conclusion, the overall objective of this internship is to exhaustively measure and get to know behavior of multiple pollutant electrical characteristics (dispersion range, conductivity, and permittivity) of multiple pollutants.

        4. References
Shokoufeh Hassani, Saeideh Momtaz, Faezeh Vakhshiteh, Armin Salek Maghsoudi, Mo-hammad Reza Ganjali, Parviz Norouzi, and Mohammad Abdollahi. Biosensors and theirapplications in detection of organophosphorus pesticides in the environment. Archives of toxicology, 91(1):109–130, 2017.2

Ejeian F, Etedali P, Mansouri-Tehrani H-A, Soozanipour A, Low Z-X, Asadnia M, et al. Biosensors for wastewater monitoring: A review. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2018 Oct 30; 118:66–79. 9.

Yang Y, Liu Y, Chen Y, Wang Y, Shao P, Liu R, et al. A portable instrument for monitoring acute water toxicity based on mediated electrochemical biosensor: Design, testing and evaluation. Chemosphere. 2020 Sep;255:126964.

  • Keywords : Engineering sciences, Electronics and microelectronics - Optoelectronics, FMNT, IMEP-LaHc
  • Laboratory : FMNT / IMEP-LaHc
  • CEA code : IMEPLAHC-DHREAMS-26-10-2023
  • Contact :
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